What is CMV?

CMV, cytomegalovirus, is a member of the herpesvirus family and is highly prevalent worldwide. You can become infected with CMV through bodily fluids, including saliva, urine, blood, seminal fluid, and breast milk. The most common transmission modes are through close contact with infected individuals or exposure to bodily fluids. It is important to note that CMV can be present in an individual's body without causing any symptoms or illness, making detecting and preventing transmission challenging.

cmv virus

How Common is CMV?

The CDC states that nearly 1 in 3 children have already been infected with CMV by age 5, and by the age of 40, over half of the population is infected. The prevalence of CMV in sperm donors varies depending on the screened population. Studies have shown that CMV infection rates among sperm donors range from 30% to 70%. However, it is essential to note that the presence of CMV does not necessarily indicate active infection or the potential for transmission. Donor screening protocols typically include testing for CMV antibodies, which can help determine if the donor has contacted the virus in the past.

Symptoms of CMV Infection

CMV infection can manifest differently in individuals depending on their immune system and overall health. Many people infected with CMV may not experience symptoms or only have mild symptoms that resolve independently. However, those with weakened immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS or undergoing organ transplantation, may develop severe complications. These can include pneumonia, hepatitis, retinitis (inflammation of the retina), and neurological disorders. Awareness of these symptoms and seeking medical attention if necessary is crucial.

Becoming Infected With CMV

Primary CMV infection occurs in people who have never been exposed to the CMV virus before. Once a person becomes infected with CMV, the virus remains alive but dormant inside their body for the rest of their life. Recurrent CMV infection is when a dormant virus becomes active again. CMV infection is usually harmless and rarely causes illness. However, primary CMV infection can cause more severe problems for pregnant women than recurrent CMV infection.

cmv in human cells

CMV in human cells.

Diagnosis and Treatment of CMV Infection

Diagnosing CMV infection involves various methods, including blood tests to detect the presence of CMV antibodies or viral DNA. Other tests like urine or saliva samples may also confirm active infection. Treatment options for CMV infection depend on the severity of symptoms and the individual's immune status. A healthcare provider may prescribe antiviral medications to manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications.

Prevention of CMV Transmission in Sperm Donation

Preventing CMV transmission in sperm donation involves following proper protocols and procedures. Donor screening for CMV antibodies is essential in identifying potential donors who may pose a higher risk of transmission. Additionally, implementing strict guidelines for handling and processing donated sperm can help minimize the risk of contamination. Cryopreservation techniques, such as freezing and quarantine periods, can also be employed to ensure that donated sperm is free from infectious agents before use.

CMV Protocols At Cryobank America

The FDA requires CMV testing on all men who intend to donate sperm. A positive result, however, doesn't necessarily mean that a man will be ineligible to donate. Cryobank America will obtain semen samples from potential donors and then quarantine those specimens for at least six months. During that time, the donor may have had CMV antibody levels tested several times. If the antibody tests indicate the possibility of a CMV infection close to the time of the sperm donation, the donor will not be allowed to donate their specimens. If the testing demonstrates inconclusive results, the donor will not be permitted to donate. However, if a donor tests positive for CMV IgG only, indicating a past infection, he will be eligible to contribute. These samples appear in the Cryobank America donor database as CMV-positive.

Can Washed Donor Sperm Transmit CMV?

No, clinically washed sperm is typically free from CMV (Cytomegalovirus) transmission. The sperm-washing process separates sperm from the seminal fluid, which reduces the risk of transmitting infections such as CMV. However, no medical procedure can guarantee 100% elimination of all viruses or infections. You should always consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice and information.

Considering Pregnancy Through Donor Sperm?

Women considering pregnancy with donor sperm should have CMV antibody testing as part of their IDT. Those with a past infection are at low risk of transmitting CMV infection to a fetus and are at little to no risk if they decide to use a CMV-positive donor.

Women never exposed to CMV should consider using a CMV-negative donor. Even though the risk from a CMV-positive donor is low, it is impossible to determine whether there will be a risk for infection.

Cryobank America's donor catalog has a CMV search filter for positive and negative sperm donors. To find a CMV-negative sperm donor, select negative under the CMV option!

CMV Resources

For additional information on CMV, this link is especially helpful:


If you have any questions about CMV, please email us at [email protected] or call 817-945-8708; we will be happy to help!

When it comes to cryobanking, finding the best California cryobank is crucial. California is home to numerous cryobanks that offer an extensive range of services and options for individuals and couples looking to preserve their fertility or start a family using donor sperm. Choosing the right cryobank is essential to ensure optimal quality of services and the best chance of success in achieving your reproductive goals.

There Are Various California Cryobank Options For Donor Sperm

In California, there are various options available when it comes to choosing donor sperm. These options include anonymous donors, known donors, and open donors. Anonymous donors are individuals who choose to remain anonymous and do not have any contact with the recipient or resulting child. Known donors are individuals known to the recipient and may have an ongoing relationship with them. Open donors are individuals willing to have some level of contact with the recipient or resulting child, either through letters, emails, or even in-person meetings.

Choosing the right donor sperm is important based on your preferences and needs. When selecting a donor, it is crucial to consider physical characteristics, medical history, and personal values. Many cryobanks provide detailed profiles of their donors, including information about their physical appearance, education, hobbies, and medical history. Some California cryobanks also offer the option to choose a donor who closely matches your own ethnic or cultural background.

Do I Need To Purchase Donor Sperm From A California Cryobank If I Live In CA?

If you're a California resident, you do not need to purchase donor sperm from a California Cryobank. Many cryobanks around the world deliver donor sperm wherever you reside. Cryobank America offers easy online navigation of donor profiles and vial delivery worldwide.


Understanding the Different Types of California Cryobanks

Different types of cryobanks are available in California, including private and public ones. Private cryobanks are typically for-profit organizations that offer a wide range of services, including egg and sperm storage and donor sperm and egg services. These cryobanks often have many donors and may provide additional services such as genetic testing and counseling.

Public cryobanks, on the other hand, are typically non-profit organizations that focus on providing donor sperm and egg services to individuals and couples who may not be able to afford the high costs associated with private cryobanks. These cryobanks often have a smaller selection of donors and may have stricter recipient eligibility criteria.

Factors to Consider When Choosing A California Cryobank

When choosing a cryobank in California, you should consider several factors. One of the most important factors to consider is the reputation and experience of the cryobank. Choose a cryobank with a good reputation for providing high-quality services to ensure that you receive the best possible care and that the cryopreserved samples are of the highest quality.

Additionally, consider the policies and procedures of the cryobank. These criteria include their donor screening process, quality control measures for cryopreserved samples, and policies regarding releasing information to donors and recipients. Choosing a cryobank with strict policies and procedures ensures the safety of all parties involved.

The Importance of Accreditation and Certification in Cryobanking

Accreditation and certification are important factors when choosing a California Cryobank. Accreditation is a process in which an independent organization evaluates and certifies that a cryobank meets specific standards of quality and safety. Certification, on the other hand, is a process in which a professional organization recognizes a cryobank as meeting particular standards of practice. Cryobank America is fully licensed and registered with the state of California by the State of California Department of Public Health.

Choosing an accredited and certified cryobank can provide reassurance that the cryobank has undergone rigorous evaluation and meets only the highest safety and quality requirements. It can also provide peace of mind knowing that the cryobank is committed to providing its clients the best possible care and services.

How to Evaluate the Quality of Cryopreserved Samples

Evaluating the quality of cryopreserved samples is an essential step in the cryobanking process. The quality of cryopreserved samples can impact the success rates of artificial insemination and reproductive technologies.

There are several factors to consider when evaluating the quality of cryopreserved samples. One factor is the post-thaw survival rate, which refers to the percentage of cells or embryos that survive thawing. A high post-thaw survival rate indicates that the cryopreserved samples have been properly stored and handled and are likely to have a higher chance of success.

Another factor to consider is the viability of the cryopreserved samples. Viability refers to the ability of the cells or embryos to develop and grow after thawing. Choosing a cryobank with high viability rates is essential, as this can increase the chances of a successful pregnancy. Cryobank America conducts a pre and post-thaw count before and after each vial is stored and prepared for delivery. This report is included in your at-home insemination kit to ensure you know the post-thaw results of your donor sperm.

The Role of Donor Screening and Testing in Cryobanking

Donor screening and testing play a crucial role in the cryobanking process. Donor screening evaluates potential donors to ensure they meet specific criteria, such as being free from infectious diseases and having a healthy medical history. On the other hand, donor testing involves conducting various tests on the donor's biological samples to ensure they are free from genetic disorders or other hereditary conditions.

Cryobanks in California may perform different types of donor screening and testing. These may include infectious disease testing such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Donor testing may also include genetic screening for conditions like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.

Choosing A California Cryobank

Choosing a California cryobank with strict donor screening and testing protocols is essential to ensure the safety of the donor and the recipient. These standards can minimize the risk of transmitting infectious diseases or genetic disorders.

Finding The Highest Quality Donor Sperm in California

Finding the highest quality donor sperm in California requires careful consideration and research. Choose a reputable cryobank that has a track record of providing high-quality donor sperm and has strict quality control measures in place.

One way to find the highest quality donor sperm is to choose a cryobank that offers comprehensive genetic testing for donors. Testing can assist in identifying any potential genetic disorders or hereditary conditions that may be present in the donor's genetic makeup. Expanding your search and looking into cryobanks outside of California is essential, as this can increase the chances of finding a donor who closely matches your preferences and needs.

Cost and Payment Options for California Cryobank Services

The cost of cryobanking services in California can vary depending on the cryobank and the specific services provided. Consider the cost of cryobanking when deciding, as it can be a significant financial investment.

In addition to the cost of cryobanking, consider the available payment options. Some cryobanks may offer financing options or payment plans to make costs more manageable. Cryobank America provides affordable pricing and financing options, making donor sperm more accessible to everyone. Check with your insurance provider to see if your insurance plan covers services provided by California cryobanks before you start your donor search.

What is A Cryobank?

A cryobank, also known as a sperm bank, is a facility that collects, processes, stores, and distributes donated sperm for use in assisted reproductive technologies. Cryobanks play a crucial role in reproductive medicine by providing individuals and couples access to donor sperm when natural conception is not possible or advisable. Cryobanks operate under strict guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the donated sperm.

The process begins with potential donors undergoing a thorough screening to assess their physical health, medical history, and genetic background. Once accepted as donors, they provide semen samples through masturbation or other collection methods. The samples are then processed to separate the sperm from different components of semen, such as seminal fluid. The processed sperm is then frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen tanks at extremely low temperatures to maintain viability.

What Services Are Typically Offered At A Cryobank?

Semen Analysis

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that examines the characteristics of semen, which is the fluid that contains sperm. It is typically one of the first tests conducted when assessing male fertility. During a semen analysis, several parameters are examined, including sperm count, motility (movement), morphology (shape), and volume of semen. These parameters provide valuable insights into the overall health and quality of sperm.

Semen analysis results can guide fertility treatment decisions. A fertility clinic may recommend different treatment options depending on the analysis findings. For example, if the sperm count is low, assisted reproductive techniques such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be suggested. On the other hand, if sperm motility is poor, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be recommended.

Advancements in technology are continuously improving the accuracy and efficiency of semen analysis. For example, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems provide more precise measurements of sperm parameters. Ongoing research also explores new ways to assess sperm quality, such as DNA fragmentation testing. These advancements hold promise for improving male fertility assessment and treatment options.

Cryobank Donor Sperm

The process of donor sperm banking involves several steps. First, potential donors undergo a thorough screening process to see if they meet the necessary health and genetic criteria. Once approved, donors provide a semen sample through masturbation or other cryobank-approved methods.

The collected sample is then processed in a laboratory to separate the sperm from other components of semen. The sperm is then mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to protect it during freezing. The sample is divided into vials and frozen using liquid nitrogen. The vials are then stored in a cryogenic tank at extremely low temperatures to maintain the viability of the sperm.

Cryobank facilities adhere to stringent quality control measures to ensure the safety and viability of their samples. When selecting a sperm donor, cryobanks provide various services to assist prospective parents in making informed decisions.

A diverse range of individuals and couples utilizes cryobanks. Some common reasons for using donor sperm include male infertility, genetic disorders, single parenthood by choice, same-sex couples, and couples where the male partner has undergone sterilization procedures.

For individuals or couples facing male infertility, cryobanks offer a solution by providing access to donor sperm. Donor sperm allows them to pursue assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) to achieve pregnancy.

In cases where there is a risk of passing on genetic disorders, using donor sperm can help mitigate that risk. Donors are thoroughly screened for genetic conditions, reducing the chances of passing on inherited diseases to future children.

Single individuals or same-sex couples also rely on sperm banks to fulfill their desire to have children. Sperm donation allows them to start or expand their families, regardless of marital status or sexual orientation.

Click here to view Cryobank America's donor qualifications and screening requirements, or click here to begin your donor search.

Chromosome Analysis

Chromosome analysis is a method of studying genetic makeup by examining the structure and number of chromosomes. This analysis can provide valuable insights into an individual's genetic potential and help identify potential genetic disorders. Chromosome analysis uses several techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

Karyotyping involves staining and examining chromosomes under a microscope to determine their structure and number. This technique can help identify missing or extra chromosomes and structural abnormalities such as translocations or deletions. FISH involves using fluorescent probes to label specific genes or regions of chromosomes, allowing for the detection of specific genetic abnormalities. CGH is a technique that compares the DNA from an individual to a reference DNA sample, allowing for the detection of copy number variations or changes in the number of copies of specific genes.

Chromosome analysis has been instrumental in identifying the genetic basis of inherited traits. Researchers have identified genes contributing to traits such as eye color, height, and intelligence by studying the structure and number of chromosomes. For example, the OCA2 gene on chromosome 15 is associated with the production of melanin, which determines eye color. Variations in this gene can result in different eye colors, such as blue or brown.

Similarly, studies have identified multiple genes on different chromosomes that determine height. These genes interact with each other and environmental factors to influence an individual's height. By studying the structure and number of chromosomes, researchers can better understand the complex genetic basis of traits.

iui 29

The Myriad Foresight Carrier Screening

The Myriad Foresight Carrier Screen is a cutting-edge genetic testing tool that provides comprehensive screening for over 175 genetic disorders. It utilizes advanced technology to analyze an individual's DNA and identify any mutations or variations that may indicate carrier status for a particular ailment. The Myriad Foresight Carrier Screen is highly accurate and reliable, providing individuals with valuable information about their genetic health.

One of the key advantages of the Myriad Foresight Carrier Screen is its comprehensive nature. It screens for genetic disorders, including those more prevalent in specific ethnic populations. This screening ensures that individuals receive a thorough assessment of their carrier status and can make informed decisions about their family planning options.

The Myriad Foresight Carrier Screen can detect carriers for various genetic disorders. Some specific conditions this screening can identify include cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy, sickle cell disease, and Tay-Sachs disease, among many others. These disorders vary in severity and prevalence, but all have the potential to impact an individual's health or the health of their future children.

By identifying carriers for these disorders, the Myriad Foresight Carrier Screen allows individuals to understand their risk of passing these conditions to their children. This knowledge can be invaluable in making informed decisions about family planning and taking proactive steps to safeguard the health of future generations.

Complete Bloodwork Testing

Complete bloodwork involves analyzing various components of your blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Each component plays a crucial role in maintaining your overall health, and abnormalities in their levels can indicate underlying health conditions.

Red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen to all parts of your body. A complete blood count (CBC) measures the number of red blood cells in your blood. Abnormal levels of red blood cells can indicate anemia, which can be caused by a deficiency in iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid can cause. It can also indicate other underlying health conditions like kidney disease or bone marrow disorders.

White blood cells are essential to your immune system and help fight off infections and diseases. A CBC also measures the number of white blood cells in your blood. Elevated levels of white blood cells can indicate an infection or inflammation in your body. On the other hand, low levels of white blood cells can be a sign of a weakened immune system or certain medical conditions such as leukemia.

Platelets are responsible for clotting your blood to prevent excessive bleeding. A CBC also measures the number of platelets in your blood. Abnormal levels of platelets can indicate a bleeding disorder or a bone marrow disorder.

Cryobank Sperm Storage

Sperm storage is a critical aspect of cryobanks. Sperm can be stored in a cryobank for extended periods, allowing individuals or couples to use the sperm when they are ready to start a family.

The sperm storage process involves freezing the sperm samples in liquid nitrogen at extremely low temperatures. This freezing process helps preserve the viability of the sperm by slowing down cellular activity. Sperm can be stored in liquid nitrogen tanks for many years without significantly losing quality.

Cryobanks offer different storage options depending on individual needs and preferences. Some individuals may choose short-term storage if they plan to use the sperm within a few months or years. Others may opt for long-term storage to preserve their fertility for an extended period, such as cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

The recommended storage duration for sperm varies depending on individual circumstances. Cryobanks can store sperm for several years without significant loss of quality. Still, it is important to consult with a fertility specialist to determine the best storage duration for your specific situation.

Known Donor Collection

Known sperm donor collection offers several benefits for families seeking to conceive through sperm donation. One of the main advantages is the potential for a stronger emotional connection and support system. When using a known sperm donor, there is the opportunity for ongoing communication and involvement between the donor, parents, and child. This involvement can create a sense of extended family and provide additional emotional support for all parties involved.

Additionally, having a known sperm donor can give families a sense of security and peace of mind. They can establish a relationship with the donor before conception, which can help build trust and ensure that the donor is a good fit for their family. Known donors are still required to undergo testing, which includes medical screening, blood testing, semen analysis, urinalysis, and more. They also have the option to receive additional screenings such as genetic testing or chromosome analysis.

Cryobank At-Home Insemination Kit

At-home insemination, also known as self-insemination, is a method used by individuals or couples trying to conceive without the assistance of a medical professional. It involves introducing sperm into the reproductive system to achieve pregnancy. Insertion is performed through various methods, such as using a sterile syringe or a cervical cap.

At-home insemination differs from other fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) because it does not require medical intervention or fertility drugs. It is a more natural and less invasive method that individuals and couples can perform in the comfort of their own homes.

At Cryobank America, the process of at-home insemination is simple. Once you've chosen your perfect sperm donor, you'll place your vial order online. We'll schedule delivery of your vials around your schedule and fertility window. You'll receive our at-home insemination kit with everything you need to complete self-insemination. Click here for an in-depth overview of our process and steps for success.